## Contents

Let $$\mathrm{OT_\varepsilon}(\alpha, \beta)$$ the entropic regularized OT distance between two distributions $$\alpha$$ and $$\beta$$. One issue with $$\mathrm{OT_\varepsilon}$$ is that $$\mathrm{OT_\varepsilon}(\alpha, \alpha)$$ is not equal to 0.

The Sinkhorn divergence, defined in as $$\mathrm{S}_\varepsilon(\alpha, \beta) = \mathrm{OT_\varepsilon}(\alpha, \beta) - \frac{1}{2}\mathrm{OT_\varepsilon}(\alpha, \alpha) - \frac{1}{2}\mathrm{OT_\varepsilon}(\beta, \beta)$$ removes this entropic bias.

In this tutorial we showcase the advantage of removing the entropic bias using gradient flows on 2-D distributions, as done in and following the Point Clouds tutorial.

## Imports#

import sys

!pip install -q git+https://github.com/ott-jax/ott@main

from typing import Any, Callable, Tuple

import jax
import jax.numpy as jnp

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from IPython import display

import ott
from ott.geometry import pointcloud
from ott.problems.linear import linear_problem
from ott.solvers.linear import sinkhorn
from ott.tools import plot, sinkhorn_divergence


## Sampling Source/Target Distributions#

Let us start by defining simple source and target distributions.

key1, key2 = jax.random.split(jax.random.PRNGKey(0), 2)

x = 0.25 * jax.random.normal(key1, (25, 2))  # Source
y = 0.5 * jax.random.normal(key2, (50, 2)) + jnp.array((6, 0))  # Target

plt.scatter(x[:, 0], x[:, 1], edgecolors="k", marker="o", label="x", s=200)
plt.scatter(y[:, 0], y[:, 1], edgecolors="k", marker="X", label="y", s=200)
plt.legend(fontsize=15)
plt.show()


## Gradient Flow of a Divergence#

The code below performs gradient descent to move points in a point cloud x in a way that minimizes a divergence to another point cloud y, divergence(x, y, epsilon).

def gradient_flow(
x: jnp.ndarray,
y: jnp.ndarray,
divergence: Callable[[jnp.ndarray, jnp.ndarray, float], Tuple[float, Any]],
num_iter: int = 500,
lr: float = 0.2,
dump_every: int = 50,
epsilon: float = None,
):
"""Compute an entropic Wasserstein (possibly debiased) gradient flow."""

ots = []

# Apply jax.value_and_grad operator and jit that function.

# Perform gradient descent on x.
for i in range(0, num_iter + 1):
(cost, ot), grad_x = divergence_vg(x, y, epsilon)
assert ot.converged
x = x - grad_x * lr  # Perform a gradient descent step.
if i % dump_every == 0:
ots.append(ot)  # Save the current state of the optimization.

return ots

def display_animation(ots, plot_class=plot.Plot):
"""Display an animation of the gradient flow."""
plott = plot_class(show_lines=False)
anim = plott.animate(ots, frame_rate=4)
html = display.HTML(anim.to_jshtml())
display.display(html)
plt.close()


## Gradient Flow of $$\mathrm{OT}_\varepsilon$$#

We set the divergence to be the regularized OT cost.

def reg_ot_cost(x, y, epsilon=None):
"""Return the OT cost and OT output given a geometry"""
geom = pointcloud.PointCloud(x, y, epsilon=epsilon)
ot = sinkhorn.Sinkhorn()(linear_problem.LinearProblem(geom))
return ot.reg_ot_cost, ot


For the default value of $$\varepsilon$$, the gradient flow behaves as expected:

# Compute and display the gradient flow for the regularized OT cost.

But for a larger $$\varepsilon$$, the distribution collapses:
# Compute and display the gradient flow for a larger value of epsilon.